In India, the availability of fracture healing therapies to the general public is limited. The infrastructure of the health system in India, involving both public and private sectors, does not provide adequate opportunity for rural and low-income inhabitants to access needed care. This book addressed an important gap in the literature: the lack of recent and broadly representative data on over all general condition, economic status and healthcare use of long bone fracture treatment depending on the delayed union status.
The Parents' Guide to Children's Orthopaedics is a series of small booklets based on common paediatric orthopaedic problems that often worry parents. Each booklet is written jointly by parents, children and healthcare providers from different disciplines. The breadth and depth of knowledge are set at what parents and children need to know about a particular problem so that they can contribute effectively to their management. The frequently asked questions are answered in a lay person language and medical terms are explained. Answers are supported with evidence-based facts. Clinical photographs, charts and radiological pictures are included to enhance understanding. The series includes the followings titles: - Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) - Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) - Legg-Calves-Perthes Disease (LCPD) - Club feet - Flat feet - In-toeing and Out-toeing - Scoliosis - Cerebral palsy - Leg length discrepancy - Bone and joint infections
An important and growing part of the textile industry consists of the medical, healthcare and hygiene sectors. The extend of the growth is due to the constant improvements and innovations in both textile technology and medical procedures. Textile materials have been indispensable in the medical area. It has helped the medical world in every form and shape. Staple fibres are used for cleaning wounds, bandages for covering wounds, sutures are indispensable for surgery, plasters for joining bone fractures and knitted vascular grafts widely used to replace arteries. There has been a steady development in these textiles used for medical purposes, are more commonly termed as "medical textiles". Medical textiles are a major thrust area within the technical textile industry and the range of applications continue to bloom and increase its diversity with every new development. In the past decades, more and more efforts have been expanded on the development of new materials for the use as surgical sutures, especially absorbable sutures with satisfactory tensile strength and excellent biocompatibility. The degradation behaviour of suture materials is very important.
The individual with a cleft lip and/or palate or craniofacial syndrome may be faced with significant dental concerns affecting the tooth and bone structure in addition to feeding difficulties, middle ear problems and speech and language issues. Cleft palate and other craniofacial conditions are widely cared for in the context of a multi-specialty healthcare team (Strauss, 1999. Rehabilitation services for these conditions require the expertise of a multi-disciplinary team of medical, dental and other specialists. The complex nature of these conditions and the impact of growth and development on treatment outcomes may necessitate a number of rehabilitation services between birth and adulthood. The assessment team may include the following professionals: - Audiologist - Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon - Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon - Orthodontist - Paediatric Dentist - Plastic Surgeon - Prosthodontist - Psychologist - Social Worker - Speech and Language Pathologist So, this multidisciplinary team is a group of individuals from different specialist backgrounds who work closely together, not only to bring each specialist's particular expertise to the patient in option.
Oral health is an important component of the physical and mental health. Oral health care, long neglected in elderly, is viewed not only as desirable but as vital. Oral conditions in older adults have a wide range of effects on functional status, well-being and ultimately quality of life. The elderly constitute a small but rapidly growing segment of the population. This population is undergoing a rapid transformation, becoming more affluent and better educated on average than in the past. Aging of the population presents a special challenge to dentists. Public health measures should be given priority and implemented. Promotional and preventive educational strategies involving media, self-care, self-monitoring as well as direct delivery by the dental professional, can improve oral health status of elders. These strategies minimize root caries, reduce gingivitis, bone loss, control denture stomatitis and aid in the early detection of oral diseases. It is important for the dentist to be aware of practical problem-oriented approaches that helps in patient management, maintaining & improving dental health as part of total healthcare services available to the elderly.
The development of biomimetic materials able to regenerate long bone segments is a need of ever increasing relevance, due to the strong impact of bone diseases on human health, quality of life and healthcare costs. Bone regeneration requires biomaterials and devices able to mimic chemistry, morphology and mechanical properties of the living tissues. In this respect, the present work illustrates, under different perspectives, the development of biomimetic materials for bone repair, so as to outline a roadmap for the development of regenerative bone scaffold. Firstly, the chemical aspects of bone mimesis are discussed by describing the development of multi-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA). Then, in the perspective of increasing the mechanical strength of bio-devices, for application in the regeneration of segmental bone defects, the synthesis of new ceramic composite materials, based on HA and calcium silicates, is discussed. Finally a conceptually new approach to mimic the unique morphological features of bones is discussed: taking inspiration by Nature, biomimetic bone scaffolds with hierarchically organized structure can be obtained by biomorphic transformation of natural woods.
Emergency medical technician (EMT) is a term used in various countries to denote a healthcare provider trained to provide pre-hospital emergency medical services.The precise meaning of the term varies by jurisdiction, but in many countries EMTs respond to emergency calls, perform certain medical procedures and transport patients to hospital in accordance with protocols and guidelines established by physician medical directors. They may work in an ambulance service (paid or voluntary), as a member of technical rescue teams, or as part of an allied service such as a fire or police department. EMTs are trained to assess a patient's condition, and to perform such emergency medical procedures as are needed to maintain a patent airway with adequate breathing and cardiovascular circulation until the patient can be transferred to an appropriate destination for advanced medical care. Interventions include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, controlling severe external bleeding, preventing shock, body immobilization to prevent spinal damage, and splinting of bone fractures.
Re-EngineeringoftheDamagedBrainandSpinalCord isdedicatedtoTetsuoKanno,M. D. ProfessorofNeurosurgery Bypresenting theoriginal papers thatmakeupthis thefeaturesofthelocalmedicallandscapeinthe- third supplement we wish to make a further contri- gionswheretheyareenacted. Whatismore,progr- bution to the issue of functional rehabilitation, this sivenew?ndingsmustbealsosubjectedtoafrequent soimportantandfascinatingmodernareaofresearch revision. Ontopofthis,itshouldnotbeforgottenthat inthe?eldofneurosciences. Thecongresspaperswe even when committal therapy guidelines are c- haveselectedconstituteagoodre?ectionofthetrans- sistentlyapplied,thereareconsiderablevariationsin disciplinary objectives. The literature references are therangeofpotentialcomplicationsandintheo- designedasaguidetoleadtheinterestedreadertoa comeofprospectivecontrolledmulti-centreandmul- deeperandmoredetailedunderstandingoftheindi- nationalstudiesontheissueofqualitymanagement. vidualissues. Functionalrehabilitationhasbeenanoriginaltask The demand for evidence-based medicine is well ofneurosurgeryfromtheveryoutset. The1990shave justi?ed, however, it rapidly comes up against the enteredtheannalsofbrainresearchasthe Decadeof limitsoffeasibility,especiallywherecontrolledthe- theBrain . Sincethentherehasbeenaneverstronger peuticstudiesareconcerned. TheCochrancollection growthofneuroscienti?cinterestworldwide,accom- of high-quality evidence-based healthcare databases paniedbysubstantial?nancialengagement. Thishas hasthusfarbeenofnohelptousindrawingupthe- primarily resulted in advances in basic neuro- peutic recommendations for the re-engineering of biologicalandneurophysiologicalresearchandalsoin brain and spinal-cord lesions. Today as ever, the thegrowthofneuroscienti?cknowledgeaboutbasic opinion of experts and empirically based medical mechanismsformotor control,paincontrol,aware- treatment and posttraumatic neurorehabilitation ness, cognition, learning and memory. The conse- continuetooccupyanindispensablepositionforthe quencemustbetoensurethattheadvancesmadeinthe everydayclinicalpracticeofneurosurgicalandneu- neuroscienti?cresearchareaareadequatelyexpanded traumatological therapies. Promising adjunct - intopracticalneurosurgicalcareandre-engineeringof proachesincludeneuropharmacology,forcascadesof brainandspinalcordlesionsandtoensureuponnew molecular interactions are known to be underlying approaches. Following this a fundamental path will activity-dependent plasticity and skills learning, as resultinanimprovedandmoree cientpreventionin many of these processes involve the major tra- thefuture,themeasuresthatstandrightatthefore- mitters. Furthermore,biologicalinterventionsby- front of all rehabilitation principles, meaning that ingendogenousneuronsandgliaaswellasexogenous conventionalconceptsmustbemodi?edtokeeppace stemcells,bone-marrowcells,macrophages,andother withthemoretask-speci?c,intensive,andprogressive types may promote the regeneration of nerve cells, demands. In this connection a series of guidelines, tissue, and neural circuitry. Class one studies have recommendations, and expert opinions and also beenmade,andnowclasstwostudieshavebeeni- algorithms have been elaborated by national and tiated, for example in connection with acute spinal international expert panels and multidisciplinary as- cord injury (SCI). The clinical application of fu- sociationsfortheacutemedicalcareofpatients.
In this book, world-renowned experts in the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation examine a range of issues and controversies relating to apheresis, with the aim of identifying current trends and best practices. Readers will find up-to-date guidance on donor evaluation, CD34 + cell mobilization strategies, options and selection of apheresis device, anticoagulation techniques in apheresis, the role of prediction algorithms in determining procedure eligibility and length, and the prevention and management of complications. Applications of apheresis devices in the processing of bone marrow grafts are discussed, and detailed attention is devoted to the indications and rationale for therapeutic apheresis procedures, with individual chapters focusing on therapeutic plasma exchange and immunoadsorption, red cell exchange, and extracorporeal photopheresis. Finally, the applications of apheresis in pediatric donors and in resource-limiting environments are considered. This book, featuring numerous helpful tables, algorithms, and figures, will be of high practical value for residents, fellows, faculty members and other healthcare personnel involved in hematopoietic cell transplantation.